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700BC The Greek poet Heseod described the last Golden Age of man, presided over by King Chronus of Atlantis. Vases found in South America and identical vases unearthed in Troy, by the archaeologist Schliemann, bore the inscription, "From the King Chronus of Atlantis."
400BC Birth of Siddhartha Gautama (Nepal) – Founder of Buddhism
0 Birth of Jesus of Nazareth (Israel) - Founder of Christianity
Christianity, Islam, Hinduism and Buddhism are the world's four major religions. Of these, Hinduism is the oldest, elements of which have been traced back to 5500BC. Strictly the term should be Sanatan Dharma, literally, "eternal religion," the name given to the body of Vedic teachings. Sanatan Dharma has come to be called Hinduism since the time of the Greeks who designated the people on the banks of the river Indus as Indoos, or Hindus. The word Hindu, properly speaking, refers only to followers of Sanatan Dharma or Hinduism. We have Columbus to thank for the added confusion of Indian being someone from India or a native of the Americas. Interestingly Columbus’ mistake suggests a karmic link between the Americas and India.
313 Constantine becomes first Christian Roman Emperor
500AD Lowest point of Descending Kali Yuga, Ascending Kali Yuga begins
This marked the fall of the Roman Empire, which itself drew much of its culture from ancient Greece. It had colonized as far as Britannia (England) and Gaul (France). Its legacy was a model of administration and from Latin we have Italian, French, Spanish, Portuguese and Rumanian. The Persian Empire fell shortly thereafter, neither being able to withstand the lows of Kali Yuga consciousness.
529 Saint Benedict (Italy) - sets down his rules for monastic life
Monasticism was to remain almost the only spark of European culture for the next 1000 years. When the Renaissance came it drew heavily from previous more advanced civilizations in Rome, Greece and the Moslem Middle East and, as it advanced, upon the knowledge of India. Even Benedict's rule was revised over time whereby we have monasteries throughout Europe inventing alcoholic beverages such as beers, wines and champagne. The original rule had called for abstinence.
535 Climate changes dramatically - little sunshine, snow in summer. It is speculated that ash from Volcano Krakatoa had caused a volcanic winter, an echo of the 1600 BC eruption of Volcano Thera, often tied to the Old Testament stories of the Plagues of Egypt.
541 The Plague of Justinian (Italy) - thought to be the first case of plague
570 Birth of Muhammad (Saudi Arabia) – Founder of Islam
600 Stirrups (Sweden)
Allowed horses to be used in battle, changing nature of warfare
790 Viking age (Britannia) begins
Scandinavians raid then colonize British Isles, Western Europe and beyond. The scope of travel enabled by the longboat defined the Vikings. It could traverse the Atlantic, coastal waters, rivers and even be dragged over land.
1066 Norman Conquest (Britannia)
Vikings from Normandy, France take over the British Isles - the system of geographically dispersed holdings of the Normans in Britain led to cohesive nobility and a rise of the English language.
1119 Knights Templar (Jerusalem)
Establish first international banking organization
1200-1600 The Renaissance - literally rebirth
1215 Signing of Magna Carta "Great Charter" (England)
This sets the first limit on the power of the King of England. Kali Yuga governance is characterized by brutal force, torture and oppression, seen only in modern times in the aftermath of the French Revolution and National Socialist and Communist Socialist movements. It survives in backward pockets of the world such as North Korea, Columbia and some African states.
1229 Inquisition Formed (France) - goal of suppressing reform movements within the Catholic Church, in particular Catharism and Waldensians
1248 Gunpowder arrives in Europe (UK) - although many antecedents in China, India and Moslem world
1299 Travels of Marco Polo - first account of Europeans voyaging to the East
We still have Columbus' copy with hand-written notes. Polo's voyages, although mocked for supposed exaggeration at the time, drove the popular wish to explore the East.
1315 Great famine kills millions
1340 Black Death - total number of deaths worldwide from the plague pandemic is estimated at 75 million people, there was an estimated 20 million deaths in Europe alone
1400 Perspective in painting rediscovered (Italy)
The Greeks had it as late as 500BC since we know they used it in the painted backdrops of plays
1400 First clock towers are erected (Italy) - both Egyptians and Romans had these, using other principles and possessing greater accuracy
The regulation of time became increasingly important in industrialization, with bells and early starts used to condition whole populations in schools in North America and Western Europe for factory work.
1450 First printing press (Germany)
1453 Byzantine Empire Falls (Constantinople) - drives Italian Renaissance, taking up knowledge from Arabic world and Greece
1469 Birth of Guru Nanak (Pakistan) - Founder of Sikhism
Sikhism emphasizes equality of men, women and all castes, a sharp break with Islam and Hinduism.
1474 First patent (Italy)
1492 Columbus discovers New World, beginning of so-called Columbian Exchange (Spain)
1500 Modern musical notation developed, capable of capturing all the elements of music
Isidore of Seville, writing in the early 7th century, famously remarked that it was impossible to notate music. The record shows the capability slowly developed over the next 800 years. It was, however, possessed by the ancients as early as 2000BC according to archeologists.
1500 Tobacco introduced to the Old World
Trade in spices, tobacco, sugar, tea; coffee, chocolate, alcohol and more recently illegal drugs were early forces of globalization. In the early 90s traces of both Cocaine and Tobacco were found in Egyptian mummies dating back to before 1000BC, suggesting such trading with the New and Old Worlds had taken place in the last descending Dwapara Yuga.
1501 Typhus pandemic
1513 The Prince (Italy) Nicolo Machiavelli (1469-1527)
1516 Utopia - Thomas Moore (UK) - originally titled 'A New Atlantis'
Man begins to wake up to the possibilities of a better world and denounces some of the glaring oppressions of the time, for example, taking away common land to make sheep pasture -- forcing peasants to starvation where previously they could live free and later forcing them into factories and terrace houses. The writings inspire the formation of the Royal Society (see later). It is only in the last 100 years that men have choice in what they might become, previously, the role one was born into was life-determining -- Prince or Pauper, explaining the great love affair of the "Little Guy" in the United States and Australia, where personal effort rather than family string-pulling are admired. Unfortunately, modern America has developed its billionaire political dynasties in recent years, the last elections posing one billionaire son of a politician on the left against the same profile on the right. Before the last elections, every French candidate from left to right was the product of wealthy families, having attended the same tiny elite university - ENA.
1517 Ninety-five theses (Germany) Martin Luther (1483-1547) - launches protest movement (Protestant) against decadence and corruption in the many layers of the Catholic Church hierarchy
Luther then translates the Latin Bible into German - making it accessible to ordinary people, as much a political as a religious act (Germany)
1533 Statute of Restraint in Appeals (England) – England rejects the Pope
The Protestant idea of individual responsibility e.g. if you are poor, it is not your lot in life, rather you must personally work to improve, builds striving societies in England, Germany, Switzerland the Netherlands and Scandinavia, contrasting with the economic sliding of Catholic Europe and the Moslem nations where an attitude of 'it is God's will'...and I personally do nothing. The period saw the fall of Muslem empires, Spain and Portugal. France revived only when the Corsican Napoleon placed an emphasis on meritocracy. The contrast is still present between North and South America today.
1543 Beginning of the Scientific Revolution
1543 On the revolutions of the heavenly spheres (Poland) Nicholaus Copernicus (1473-1543)
1550 De Subtilitate (Italy) Girolamo Cardano (1501-1576) distinguishes between electricity and magnetism
1569 Mercator Projection (Belgium) facilitates navigation
1586 Shakespeare plays characterizes move from Middle to Modern English (UK)
1590 First smoking ban (Italy)
In England and France beer and wine respectively were drunk because water was usually contaminated. Low quality foods, cigarettes, alcohol and many prescription and illegal drugs cloud the mind, as the ancients of higher ages knew. Amusingly in modern times, the world's number one exporter of wine, France, wrote a scientific paper praising the medical qualities of wine. It was rejected by the scientific community as completely flawed, yet it is very often quoted by wine drinkers.
1590 European famine
1600-1700 Age of reason
Sri Yukteswar specifically mentions Gilbert, Kepler, Galileo, Drebbel, Newton, Savery and Gray in this period.
1602 First stocks and bonds, Amsterdam Stock Exchange
1600 Foundation of British East India Company (UK)
1600 William Gilbert discovers magnetic and electrical effects (UK)
1602 Foundation of Dutch East India Company (Netherlands)
1609 Kepler discovers important laws of astronomy (Austria)
1609 Galileo invents the telescope (Italy)
1610 Flintlock Rifle (France) - defined warfare for next 300 years
1611 King James Version of the Bible published in English, very strongly influences the English language
1620 European Famine
1621 Drebbel invents the microscope (Holland)
1624 Cardinal-Duc de Richelieu becomes Chief Minister to the King (France)
Besides being the foil of the three musketeers, Richelieu defined the modern nation state and the first police state, with a developed network of spies and system of bureaucratic oppression (now carried out electronically). His reign gave rise to the phrase: "The pen is mightier than the sword," as oppression and coercion moved from the purely physical to the subtle. For example, in the Academy Francaise's successful efforts to complexify French, to make it a language of elites. The American Version of English had the opposite function, to make it simpler and accessible to all. For example, the average reading age for texts in the US is kept low, facilitating commerce and immigration. To this day, it is hard for a French High School graduate to write a paragraph with no faults, a task that is simple in English. As Dwapara Yuga advanced, French was left behind since it best fitted the priorities of Kings, Nobles and more recently graduates of ENA. There is a very close connection between obscurantist language and restrictive, unionized elites in medicine and law. Incomprehensible legal texts in many nations hide illegitimate use of power and exploitation by elites.
1628 On the movement of the heart and blood in animals (UK) William Harvey (1578-1657)
1643 First Public School (Massachusetts Colony) - for all children, not simply the rich and titled
1639 First modern canal (Massachusetts Colony)
We know the ancients had canals as early as 4000BC. Perhaps given their scale they are some of the simplest ancient relics to find.
1658 Quakers Founded (UK)
ASIE: The Pennsylvania Colony was alone in not being attacked by Indian tribes while the principles of pacifism were upheld. Presidents Hoover and Nixon were Quakers.
1649 Commonwealth of England (UK) – Oliver Cromwell (1599-1658)'s Republic
1660 The Grand Tour (UK) - the elite of Britain began to tour Europe to soak up culture. In the era of mass transport, the opportunity is open to all who chose to undertake it
1661 Reign of Louis XIV (France)
One of his more ingenious ways to limit the political activity of the nobility was to establish elaborate rules for behavior and dress. The rules for dancing were especially complicated. Many of the rules of court etiquette defined one’s prestige and superiority over others. As a result, the nobles were so busy mastering appropriate court etiquette, and competing for the prestige it gave, that they had no time to plot rebellions... a fantastic Dwapara Yuga way of maintaining control, much in the way of the later Masons and Greek Societies in the US colleges...elaborate ritual and little substance.
1665 Journal des savants (France), closely followed by the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society (UK) in the same year begins free sharing of scientific knowledge
Great minds simultaneously tune into discoveries in different locations that have often had no contact with one another. Robert Merton, a sociologist, found that 92% of cases of simultaneous discovery in the 17th century ended in dispute. The number of disputes dropped to 72% in the 18th century, 59% by the latter half of the 19th century, and 33% by the first half of the 20th century. The decline in contested claims for priority in research discoveries can be credited to the increasing acceptance of the publication of papers in modern academic journals.
1665 Great Plague of London (UK) - recurrence of Black Death
1666 Great Fire of London (UK) - city largely destroyed
1679 Habeas Corpus Act (UK) - relief from unlawful imprisonment
1680 Golden Age of Piracy - pirate ships are the floating democracies - crews vote for a captain and treasures are shared, even among freed slaves making the ships the most free places on Earth
1687 Principia: mathematical principles of natural philosophy (UK) Isaac Newton (1642 -1727) – gravitational force
1688 Lloyds Insurance (UK) - maritime insurance, founded in a coffee house
1692 Salem Witch Trials (US)
Founded on principles of freedom, the ruling elites could not enforce their religious monopoly or their particular set of social beliefs, as pressures arose on the use of land and freedom of thought. The Puritans had found England too harsh and Holland to liberal, now in the US, the divisions lead to the founding of new colonies as their grip on power waned.
1700 Ascending Dwapara Yuga begins with a 200-year Sandhi
1700-1800 Age of enlightenment
1700-1900 Agricultural Revolution (UK)
1700 Sugar becomes worth its weight in gold, driving colonization, slavery and industrialization
1700 Britain exports the idea of the lawn, driving resource consumption from labor, to machines, to seeds and pesticides throughout the word
1700 Thomas Savery uses steam engine to raise water (UK)
1720 Stephen Gray discovers the action of electricity in the human body (UK)
1730 Sextant invented (simultaneously US and UK) - replaces the ancient astrolabe for marine navigation. Newton had discovered it 30 years before but not published the paper.
1730 Beginning of Evangelical Protestant Movement (US)
The Great Awakening lead people to "experience God in their own way” pulling away from ritual and ceremony of the established church. Methodism advocated reading the Bible methodically. Many new expressions of Christianity blossomed in the US, from LDS (Mormon), to Adventists, to Jehovah's Witnesses, to Unity Church.
1732 Influenza pandemic
1744 First mail order catalog (USA) - surprisingly Ben Franklin
1750-1850 Industrial Revolution (UK)
Energy and capital become the most valuable commodities.
1755 First Dictionary of the English Language (UK)
1755 Lisbon earthquake - killing between 60,000 and 100,000 people and causing a major tsunami that affected parts of Europe, North Africa and the Caribbean. Inspired passages in Voltaire's “Candide”
1756 Concrete rediscovered (UK) - concrete is found throughout the ancient world but its formulation had been lost with the Romans. The Romans and Egyptians knew how to make concrete set under water and also how to prevent its shrinking.
1775 Influenza pandemic
1761 Harrison (1693-1776) solves Longitude Problem (UK), allowing precise naval navigation
1761 First modern factory (UK)
The mills used slave labor in the US for raw cotton, mistreated their workers in Northern England and obliged Empire markets such as India to buy their products. Slaves were freed in 1863, India was freed in 1947, with a symbol of a local cotton spinning wheel on its flag, and conditions for workers in the UK improved. William Blake famously described them as "dark satanic mills". Engels, Marx's collaborator, had detailed the factory conditions and hoped it would fuel revolution. Ironically, neither he nor Marx could explain the improvement in conditions - it did not fit their theories. When revolution came, it was in backward, agricultural Russia.
Along with the rise of factories, terrace or row housing grew, characterized by community walls, and tightly packed populations, imposing uniformity and lack of creativity. In Western Europe, the Eastern sides of cities are typically the poor areas since they were downwind of the factories. The tradition continues in the US with cheaply built, densely packed apartments. In all societies and ages, elites retreat to rural areas with homes surrounded by large areas of land, from Hollywood stars to British nobles.
1763 Watt's Steam Engine - frees factories from being located next to fast flowing water, needed to drive water wheels.
1766 Christie's Auction House founded (UK) - efficient sellers’ market
1774 Chlorine (Bleach) for cleaning and disinfection isolated
1768 Encyclopedia Britannica published (UK)
1776 Literacy in State of Massachusetts at over 90%, a side effect of Puritan Religious beliefs, similarly as for Jews or Moslems, reading Holy Texts develops literacy
1776 Independence of the United States of America
1776 The wealth of nations (UK) Adam Smith (1723-1790)
Smith was one torchbearer for the Scottish Enlightenment, a period of intellectual ferment in Scotland, running from approximately 1730 to 1800.
1776 Common Sense (USA) Thomas Paine (1737-1809)
1785 Charles Wilkins (1749 – 1836) makes first translation of Sanskrit to English of the Bhagavad-Gita, opening ancient Indian knowledge to the West
Sanskrit, unlike more modern languages, has an aliveness to words in that their seed sounds support many layers and nuances of meaning. For example, the words cow and horse support the idea of the everyday animals and at the same time light and energy respectively. A Sanskrit text typically has a literalist sense, often taken up by European scholars suggesting a certain primitiveness and at the same time, when read with intuition, its deeper meaning emerges. The gods, different aspects of one divinity, are described as increasing man, bringing him light, pouring on him the fullness of the waters, increasing truth in him and the demons are powers of division and limitation - coverers, tearers, devourers, confiners, dualisers and obstructers. The Transcendentalists (see later) were deeply influenced by the Gita.
1785 US Dollar introduced - becoming, over time, a world currency, rivaled today only by the Euro
1786 Birth of Davy Crockett the last words from his journal were “No time for memos now. Go ahead! Liberty and independence forever!”
1789 French Revolution, inspires revolution throughout South America
In the revolution, the Virgin Mary in Notre Dame Cathedral, Paris, was replaced by Lady Liberty (an embodiment of Liberty, similar to the US Statue of Liberty or the UK's Britannia), an interesting progression from the original temple of Jupiter under the Romans then the church of the Francs in 500AD. In modern, secular France, the church is as much a museum as anything else. Huge monumental structures are not necessary for individual spiritual practice under Dwapara Yuga.
1789 Declaration of Rights of Man (France) - specifically includes privacy
1789 Metric System of measurement (France) - now world standard
1789 Bill of Rights (USA)
1792 Semaphore invented (France)
1796 First Vaccinations (UK)
1798 Essay on the principle of population (UK) Thomas Malthus (1766-1834)
1799 Fourdrinier machine (France) - first modern paper machine, along with pencil and modern fountain pen, fueled the industrial revolution, incidentally reducing the importance of clerks
1800 Second Great Awakening (USA) - continuing of the evangelical movement
1800 First Battery (Italy)
1815 End of British-American War
1817 Cholera pandemic
1819 Market crash - Panic of 1819
1825 First railway (UK) - frees cities from being located on the sea, rivers or canals, as all world's major cities are
Manchester was the first industrial city, its factories driving the Industrial Revolution and then in Lowell, Massachusetts where the model was copied. It went on to become the home of the first Red Brick University - modeled on Berlin's Humboldt University, the home of Rolls Royce, the splitting of the atom and the first modern computer. Both Alan Turing and Einstein were professors at the University.
Families were split from one another, with work no longer centered on the home, this lead to many social problems. Lowell's Mills originally were staffed only with Young Yankee women and when they were not sufficiently exploitable, by immigrants.
Interestingly it was at the age of 7 that Sri Aurobindo was sent to Manchester to study with Mr. and Mrs. Drewett.
1822 Rosetta Stone Translated (France) - Enabled reading of Egyptian hieroglyphics from descending Dwapara Yuga
1823-1941 Bengal Renaissance (India)
1828 Birth of Lahiri Mahasaya
1829 Cholera pandemic
1830 Founding of Latter Day Saints Church (USA) in Manchester, NY
The Church was a pioneer in opening up the West and building a strong social security system for its members. The Mennonites and Amish had barn raisings; LDS (Mormon) built successful cities from nothing.
1836 Birth of Sri Ramakrishna
1836 Beginning of Transcendental Movement (USA) - championed by Emerson and Thoreau
1837 Market crash - Panic of 1837 (USA) - followed by 5-year depression
1839 First solar cell (component of solar panels)(France)
1840 First national postal system at one rate (UK)
1841 First Travel Agency (UK) - organized travel for ordinary citizens
1842 End of the First Opium War with China
Britain made up its trade-deficit with China by running Opium.
1843 First Iron Ship (UK)
1845 First commercial telegraph (UK)
1845 Rules of Rugby (UK) published
Rugby went on to become the world game of football (soccer) and the US-only game of American football. The rules were set down in this year yet the game had been played at Rugby School for 200 years prior to that. It is an embodiment of the idea of Muscular Christianity i.e. combining athleticism with Christian principles. In the US, this same movement inspired the YMCA.
1845 Irish Potato Famine
1847 Establishment of Greenwich Mean Time (UK) - now a world standard called Universal or Zulu time
1847 Influenza pandemic
1848 First modern oil well (Russia)
1849 California Gold Rush (USA)
This is the most famous of several gold rushes that took place throughout the 19th century in Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, New Zealand, South Africa and the United States. They symbolize Dwapara Yuga in that anyone from anywhere could become rich and successful just by making a determined effort, whether mining or more intelligently selling services. In the past, even a lifetime of hard work was no guarantee of any positive result beyond non-starvation. Via the impetus of the rushes, immigration was driven to many new parts of the world, driving the thriving cultures that continue to this day.
1850 Public Libraries Act (UK) - Public libraries open to all, not just scholars
1851 First Red Brick University (UK) emphasizes real world skills, not simply theology
1852 Mandatory Schooling (USA, State of Massachusetts)
1852 Metropolis Water Act (UK) - Sand is used to filter drinking water in London for the first time, making it truly fit to drink. Similar filters were described in Sanskrit writings of 2000BC.
1852 Cholera pandemic
1855 Birth of Sri Yukteswar (India)
1855 Cocaine isolated (Germany)
It became the wonder drug of the end of the 19th century, driving the soda fountains of Middle America where ordering a Coca Cola was described as 'taking a shot in the arm'. Ironically it was initially used to treat alcohol and morphine addiction, products that had been known for millennia
1855 Bubonic plague pandemic
1855 First mass production of steel (UK) - simultaneously discovered in US also
1856 India completely under the control of British East India Company
1857 Influenza pandemic
1858 Birth of JC Bose (India)
1858 First transatlantic telegraph cable
1858 The Great Stink (UK) - the sewage problem of London became unbearable leading to the construction of a modern sewage system
To this day, the modern cities of Europe are riddled with catacombs, charnel houses and mass graves filled to capacity with the corpses from the numerous plagues and pestilences of the polluted cities. Paris has a population of 2 million and catacombs containing 6 million bodies. Even as late as the Roman period, the importance of fresh drinking water, sewage collection and bathing had been understood. With Christianity came an end to the old practice of burning corpses and public bathing. Only in the mid 19th century did the world's great cities begin building fresh water, sewage and modern sanitation systems, the lack of which still hold back the Third World countries.
1859 Origin of species by means of natural selection (UK) Charles Darwin (1809 - 1882)
1860 End of Second Opium War between Britain and China
1861 Lahiri Mahasaya meets Babaji (India)
1861 Birth of Rabindranath Tagore (India)
1863 Birth of Swami Vivekananda (India)
1863 Emancipation Proclamation (USA)
1863 Adventist Church Founded (USA)
The church members are to this day the healthiest population in the US, followed by LDS (Mormon). Cornflakes were invented to meet part of their dietary needs.
1863 Cholera pandemic
1863 Jules Verne writes "Paris in the Twentieth Century" which accurately predicts the pace, technology and heartlessness of modern cities and living. It was suppressed and only published 125 years later.
1865 End of American Civil War
1865 Assassination of President Lincoln
1864 James Clerk Maxwell (1839 – 1879) shows unity of electricity and magnetism - electromagnetism
1866 Dynamite invented (Sweden)
1869 Birth of Gandhi (India)
1869 Market crash - Black Friday - brought about by gold speculation
1869 Suez Canal Reopens (Egypt) - Archeological evidence suggests it was open as early as 1878 BC
1869 Transcontinental Railroad (US) - golden spike driven in Utah
1870 Dewey Decimal Classification of Books invented - now used by more than 200,000 libraries worldwide
1872 Birth of Swami Aurobindo (India)
1872 Jehovah's Witness Church founded (USA)
President Eisenhower was a Jehovah's Witness.
1872 First National Park Established (USA)
1873 Market crash - Panic of 1873, initiated the Long Depression in the United States and much of Europe
1874 Heroin synthesized (UK)
Like cocaine before it, it was initially present in many common remedies like cough syrup
1885 First Automobile (Germany)
1886 Panchanan Bhattacharya founds The Aryya Mission Institution
(Chief Disciple of Lahiri Mahasaya)
1877 First record player (USA)
1887 First commercial telephone (USA)
1889 Unity Church formed (USA)
1889 Influenza pandemic
1890 First athletic shoe (trainer or sneaker) invented by Reebok (UK)
1892 Ellis Island (USA) opens to process 12 million immigrants and Angel Island from 1910, 175,000 in the West.
The mixture of all races and creeds in the US prevails over the racist 'master races' touted in the West in books such as “The Myth of the 20th Century”
1892 Birth of James Lynn (Rajarsi Janakananda, Yogananda's most advanced disciple)
1893 Birth of Mukunda Ghosh (Parmhansa Yogananda)
1893 Birth of Minnott Lewis (Yogananda's first US disciple)
1893 Birth of Oliver Black (Yogacharya Black, Yogananda's second most advanced disciple)
1893 Swami Vivekananda arrives in USA
The Chicago Parliament of World Religions awakened interest in India in the West and revivified Hinduism in India. This marked the first formal gathering of representatives of Eastern and Western spiritual traditions. Today it is recognized as the occasion of the birth of formal interreligious dialogue worldwide. The eloquence of Swami Vivekananda (student of Sri Ramakrishna) and his introduction of Hindu thought to the United States are particularly remembered. The speech has been identified by many to mark the beginning of western interest in Hinduism. His opening line, "Sisters and Brothers of America...” was greeted by a three minute standing ovation from the audience.
1893 Sears Catalog (USA) - order goods anywhere, by mail
1894 Swami Sri Yukteswar meets Babaji (India)
1894 The Holy Science (India) Swami Sri Yukteswar (1855 - 1936)
We began to hear more and more of the concept of energy in mass media. From the sixties, we begin to hear more and more of energy linked to the breath and spinal column, as esoteric truths hidden in texts and practices of religions such as Christianity, Judaism, Islam and Hinduism move from mystery schools into more public
1894 First Radio Receiver (India) - JC Bose (1858 - 1937)
Bengal, India at this time produced a wealth of geniuses from Swami Sri Yukteswar, to JC Bose, to Paramhansa Yogananda, to Sri Ramakrishna Paramhansa to Swami Vivekananda, to Sri Aurobindo, to the entire Tagore family. They all influenced both the East and the West.
1895 Birth of Basu Kumar Bagchi (Swami Dhirananda)
1896 First movie theater (USA)
1896 Birth of Manamohan Mazumder (Swami Satyananda)
Yogananda's mission began with a team of three Swamis, himself, Satyananda and Dhirananda, the latter left the path, carrying out brain research in academia.
1896 Revival of the Olympic Games (Greece)
"The sportive, knightly battle awakens the best human characteristics. It does not separate, but unites the combatants in understanding and respect. It also helps to connect the countries in the spirit of peace. That's why the Olympic Flame should never die." - 1936 Games, Hitler's speech
1897 First fingerprint bureau opens (India)
1899 Cholera pandemic
1900 Complete expression of Dwapara Yuga
1900 Discovery of the ancient Greek Computer, the Antikythera Mechanism
1901 Marconi radios from England to Canada
1901 Nobel Prize begins -- energy of smokeless gunpowder and dynamite transmuted into force for cultural good (Sweden)
1901 Freud's works are published (Austria)
Reflections of an early addict are widely read. His student Jung came to consider the science of yoga a better path for mankind than Freud's obsessions, drawn from drug-induced dreams
1903 Powered Flight with the Wright Brothers, sponsored by the US Government at College Park, MD from 1909
1904 Geographical pivot of history (UK) John Halford, 1861–1947
1905 Special theory of relativity (Switzerland) Albert Einstein (1879 – 1955) – shows unity of energy and matter
1906 Food and Drug Administration Formed (USA) -- Freedom from quack medicines and adulterated foods
1906 San Francisco Earthquake - killed approximately 3,000 people, most devastating earthquake in California and U.S. history.
1911 Beginning of Greatest Generation (participants in WWII)
1911 Principles of Scientific Management (USA) - Taylor - Sets out principles of mass production
1914 Opening of the Panama Canal (Panama)
1917 Tesla builds first Radar (USA)
1918 Close of WWI inspires decolonization movements throughout the world
1918 Avian flu/Spanish flu pandemic kills twice as many as WWI itself
1918 Beginning of movement to modern corporate structures
1919 Formation of League of Nations (Paris)
1920 Swami Yogananda arrives in USA
In the 1920s and 30s he was the most popular speaker in the US
1920 First commercial radio (USA)
1920 Prohibition of alcohol era begins (USA) - echoes similar moves in Nordic countries and USSR
1920 All groups allowed to vote in elections (USA)
1921 Zenith of English-speaking British Empire, 25% of the world (England)
1922 Yogananda establishes first ashram in the US in Waltham “Watch City”, MA
1927 Lindbergh crosses the Atlantic (USA)
Lindbergh ushered in the modern aviation era and became the first international star.
1928 Birth of Che Guevara (Argentina)
Che came frame wealthy Irish-Argentinean stock, leaving his original studies of medicine to help the poor. He was ultimately betrayed by Castro, who chose power over any campaign promises to actually help the poor on his island, or elsewhere.
1929 Swami Dhirananda betrays Yogananda and leaves the Ashram
1929 Wall Street Crash - Speculators trigger a worldwide depression (USA)
1930 Dust Bowl (USA) - early ecological disaster empties plains of farmers
1930 First Football (Soccer) World cup - A rare highlight in this dark decade
The world becomes more and more networked -- first via the oceans and rivers, then canals, streets, railways, mail/courier, electricity, water/sewage, telephone/telegraph, motorways, airports, radio, television, cable, satellite then high speed modems. In regimes such as France, the WWII generation of politicians remained focused on industrial age networks like rail and roads and their voting workers, neglecting the importance of high speed internet in a Dwapara Yuga economy. The present generation of the brightest young French professionals live and work in Britain, Switzerland or the US, a mirror of the brain drain the UK had a generation before when its Socialist ideologues punished success and believed the twin poles of life were factories and public (aka council or project) housing. Ironically, the elites of all such utopias choose not to live the model themselves.
1932 Famine in USSR - Communist Collectivization starves 6 to 8 million citizens
1932 First autobahn (Germany)
1932 Brave New World (USA)
Huxley embodied many of the aspects of Dwapara Yuga, his dystopain vision, along with his one-time pupil Orwell's '1984', warned generations of the Kali Yuga forces which threaten to constrict society. His early use of psychedelic drugs was taken up by official US government programs in the late fifties and sixties in San Francisco and Boston with the explicit aim of kick-starting creativity. Huxley was influenced by the Indian mystic Krishnamurti, along with other US figures as diverse as Bruce Lee and Joseph Campbell.
1939 Death of Robert "Crossroads" Johnson, influential bluesman, Age 27 (USA)
1939 Sri Nerode betrays Yogananda and leaves the ashram
1939 Hewlett-Packard formed (USA)
HP was formed in a garage, starting a Silicon Valley tradition, historically placing an emphasis on creative, high quality products. Its biggest innovation was social, in sharp contrast to rigid, formal East Coast companies (IBM company “song book”, Unilever's interviewing of the entire family, not just the candidate); it effectively invented the modern, informal work environment. In the period where it truly applied its own "HP Way", it was highly successful.
1940 Birth of Bruce Lee (USA)
Bruce Lee's own mixed racial heritage and openness to training students of all nationalities became a symbol of integration.
1941 First commercial television (USA)
1942 V2 weapon (Germany) - world's first ballistic missile - the same team developed both the American and Soviet missile and space programs
1942 Formation of OSS
Warfare increasingly is characterized by use of intelligence agencies, propaganda and Special Forces, for limited engagements i.e. "the few and the bright", rather than conventional armies of "the many and the dumb". The same tactics are adopted by all sides in WWII, the Cold War and now the "War on Terror." Rank in the CIA, KGB or any of the world alphabet soup of agencies becomes a path to political and economic power.
1945 Fall of National Socialism (Germany)
1945 Atomic bomb (Japan)
1945 Close of WWII and acceleration of decolonialization
Knowledge alone is not sufficient; rather it is what we do with it. Hitler kept Machiavelli's “The Prince” by his bed. Himmler kept the “Bhagavad-Gita” by his. Both had been obsessed with the past, past lives and especially India. The US General Patton frequently commented that he was reliving past lives as he fought through Europe and North Africa.
1945 British Empire wanes, American sphere of influence blossoms
1945 Formation of United Nations (USA)
1945 English emerges as world's Lingua Franca - a universal, standard language, with largest vocabulary and largest storehouse of knowledge in book form
One of the great tragedies of Kali Yuga was that in higher ages, people had perfect recall of information and had no need of books. As the ages descended, books were written down yet the great majorities were destroyed in the depths of Kali Yuga, for example, in the burning of the library of Alexandria. It is a striking fact that those that survive, from the Vedas, to the Old Testament, to the Iliad and Odyssey, to the Epic of Gilgamesh, to the Rubiyat have either an overt or a hidden spiritual message. They also tend to provide a consistent picture of past ages in which men were far from limited.
1945 Formation of International Air Transport Association (IATA)(Cuba) - organizes world air travel
1945 Birth of Bob Marley (Jamaica)
Bob was to become an important symbol of unification in the 1970s with his music - "I don't have prejudice against myself. My father was a white and my mother was black. Them call me half-caste or whatever. Me don't dip on nobody's side. Me don't dip on the black man's side nor the white man's side. Me dip on God's side, the one who create me and cause me to come from black and white."
1946 “Autobiography of a Yogi” (USA) Paramhansa Yogananda
1946 Beginning of the Baby Boom Generation
1946 Foundation of the first international business school (USA)
1947 Independence of India and Pakistan
1947 UN conference at Bretton Woods (USA) - set up International Monetary Fund, International Bank and General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)(later WTO)
1947 AK47 Assault Rifle (USSR) - empowers the individual soldier with the firepower of a squad
1947 First sighting of a “Flying Saucer” – Washington State (USA)
1947 Alleged recovery of first UFO – Roswell (USA)
1947 First Holograph (Hungary)
1947 First Transistor (USA)
1947 Marshall Plan (USA) -- helps all the nations of Europe recover, including Germany, a stark contrast with the flawed Treaty of Versailles of 1919, which ensured another war
1948 Foundation of (modern) state of Israel
1948 UN Universal Declaration of Human Rights (Paris)
1948 Assassination of Gandhi
1948 First modern computer - Manchester "Baby" (UK) - previous WWII machines were specialist code-cracking devices
1949 "1984" George Orwell (UK)
Orwell's book highlights control mechanisms of Kali Yuga states -- Newspeak/Doublethink -- "war is peace, freedom is slavery, ignorance is strength", control of language and media, fetishistic need for surveillance and distinctions of inner party members, outer party members and disenfranchised populaces -- proles. The information age brings more and better tools for oppression yet paradoxically those same tools feed the march of freedom, liberty and democracy since satellite feeds and the Internet cannot be completely blocked by regimes in North Korea, China and France, although all three have tried hard to do so. President Chirac wanted a French Google and French CNN, so his views and not Washington's could be imposed. It has been argued that all media reflect the interests of their owners. Thus, state owned media reflect the agenda of the regime and its owners, corporately owned media reflect the agenda of corporations and their owners. Interestingly the dual nature of the Internet to both reading and writing has only recently been harnessed by blog technology.
1949 First commercial photocopier (USA)
1949- Information Revolution (USA)
Great fortunes used to be based in agricultural land, for example, the Kings and Ministers of France then in great factories then railway, telephone, oil and commodity barons of all shapes. Today's richest man, Bill Gates, invented nothing, merely recognizing the value of other peoples' ideas and inventions from DOS to Word to VMS.
1950 Project Echelon (USA) - first steps to worldwide electronic surveillance - Big Brother is watching!
1950 First CNC (computer numerical control) machines - allow physical objects to be created from computer blueprints from wood, metal etc. blanks
1951 Original publication date for Yogananda's Gita Commentaries -- SRF spent more than 50 years "editing" them before publication
1951 First video game (UK) - Checkers on Manchester Mark I
Today's video game market is larger than Hollywood.
1952 Death of Yogananda, Rajarsi Janakananda (James Lynn) becomes president of SRF
1953 End of Korean War, following America’s threat to use nuclear weapons
1953 Structure of DNA understood (UK)
1954 Beginning of Ed Parker's American Kenpo Karate (USA)
This Hawaiian LDS (Mormon) member synthesized elements of Japanese and Chinese martial arts into a uniquely American form. He discovered Bruce Lee and had many famous students, including Elvis Presley. Presley, incidentally, was influenced by Yogananda, embodying Dwapara Yuga change in bringing African American music to mainstream white audiences, in much the same way as the Beatles, Stones and Zeppelin were to follow in the 60s, also becoming involved in Eastern knowledge.
1955 Death of Rajarsi Janakananda, Daya Mata (Faye Wright) becomes president of SRF
1956 First European Song Contest (Switzerland)
1956 First Commercial Robot (USA)
1956 First commercial nuclear plant (UK)
1956 Suez Crisis (Egypt) - Britain and France attempt to maintain control of the canal and in failing, underline their now diminished diplomatic and military powers
1957 Formation of United States of Europe (Italy)
The European Community began with 6 members and is 27 now in 2007, a similar rise from the US's 13 original colonies to 50 states today. With NAFTA, the United States of Americas includes the 50 states, Canada, Mexico and practically Chile, all in line with Yogananda's predictions
1957 Sputnik Satellite (USSR)
One of the few Soviet successes, it paradoxically triggers the huge investment in technology in the West that eventually will lead to the downfall of the Socialist Communist system. Apart from narrow military and scientific bands, the Communist and National Socialist regimes had almost no cultural output (excluding those who fled them). Their propaganda models were, however, widely copied in the West, defining public opinion and driving consumer culture. In contrast, the San Francisco of the 60s lead to military, scientific, business and artistic excellence, to the extent that the achievements of that period have not been repeatable, a triumph not of the will but real freedom and liberty.
1958 Beginning of Beat Generation (First modern subculture)
1958 Visa card launched (USA) - first true credit card
1958 Fair and Isaacs build first credit scores - enabling lending to anyone creditworthy rather than those already wealthy, or known to bankers
1958 Great Leap forward of Chinese Communists causes a famine which kills 30 million within 3 years
1959 Robert Zimmerman begins to introduce himself as Bob Dylan and a music that encapsulated an age was born (USA)
1959 Idea of the Knowledge Worker - Peter Drucker - one who works primarily with information or one who develops and uses knowledge in the workplace
1960 Beginning of Counterculture/Hippie/Psychedelics/Back To Land/Commune Movements (USA)
1960 First Laser (USA)
1960 Introduction of 800 numbers (USA) -- order goods anywhere rapidly
1960 Contraceptive Pill Introduced (USA)
1960 Great Chilean Earthquake (1960) - Biggest earthquake ever recorded, 9.5 on Moment magnitude scale, and generated tsunamis throughout the Pacific Ocean
1961 Eisenhower warns of the dangers of the Military-Industrial Complex (USA)
1961 Berlin Wall built (Germany)
Like many walls before it, from Hadrian's Wall, to Offa's Dyke, to the Great Wall of China, to the Maginot Line, it represented military and diplomatic weakness
1962 Missile escalation in Cuba and Turkey almost leads to WWIII (Cuba)
1962 Silent Spring (USA) by Rachel Carson - launches environmental movement
1963 Assassination of JFK
1963 Beginning of Generation X
1963 Equal compensation for women act (USA)
1963 First Lear Business Jet (USA) - ancestor of today's VLJs
Much as the computer, jets follow the arc of innovation from military technology, to governments, large corporations, and smaller corporations, to wealthy individuals, to the public. With the European Union it has been argued that cheap jet carriers brought real union where 50 years of bureaucracy had only brought resentment and resistance. Examples of historical planes are Rama's Pashpak and Elijah's Chariot of Fire, although those may simply be references to ascending consciousness rather than physical machines.
1964 DEC PDP8 Minicomputer (USA)
1964 Civil Rights act (USA)
1964 First facial recognition software (USA)
1965 Assassination of Malcolm X (USA)
1966 First commercial fax machine (USA)
1966 First commercial satellite (USA)
1966 First container ship (USA)
1966 Freedom of information act (USA)
1966 International Standard Book Number – ISBN (UK)
Contributes to universal access to information – trend tied to libraries, English language standard, search and retrieval systems
1966 Star Trek (USA) - essentially a utopian, Dwapara vision, drawing audiences together around the world. It covered controversial themes such as war, peace, authoritarianism, imperialism, class warfare, racism, human rights, sexism and feminism. Most famously, the role of technology was explored, inspiring cell phones, sliding doors and research into replicators (see CNC), matter transporters and faster than light warp drives.
1967 Controversial meetings of Beatles/Stones and Maharishi (India)
1967 Sergeant Peppers (UK) - included images of Sri Yukteswar and Paramhansa Yogananda
1968 Glashow, Salam and Weinberg – unity of electroweak and electromagnetic forces
1968 Assassination of MLK
1968 Assassination of RFK
1968 International Baccalaureate (Switzerland) - a non-profit, originally to facilitate the international mobility of children of diplomats, it now provides a curriculum for students of all kinds, all ages and in all countries - a world education
1968 Whole Earth Catalog (USA) - to provide education and "access to tools" in order that the reader could "find his own inspiration, shape his own environment, and share his adventure with whoever is interested."
1968 First acoustic coupler modem (USA)
Within one generation speeds climbed from 300 baud to 3.5 Mbit/s, i.e. from a page of simple text downloading in a minute, to an entire DVD downloading in a minute
1968 Manson becomes first of many false gurus (USA)
1969 Moon landing (USA)
1969 Open University (UK) - Distance university education
1969 Led Zeppelin’s Indian-Raga influenced music takes the world by storm (UK)
1969 Death of Brian Jones, the creative heart of the Rolling Stones, Age 27 (UK)
1969 Woodstock and Altamont Rock Festivals (USA)
1970 Beginning of telecommuting (US)
1970 First 'No fault' divorce procedures (USA)
1970 First face lifts (USA)
1970 Standard Model of particle physics unifies all but gravity of the four fundamental forces - strong, electromagnetic, electroweak and gravity
1970 Suspicious death of Janis Joplin, Age 27 (USA)
1970 Suspicious death of Jimi Hendrix, Age 27 (UK)
1971 Suspicious death of Jim Morrison, Age 27 (France)
Compare this cluster with the births in 1892-93
1971 First laser printer (USA)
1971 Formation of FedEx (USA)
1971 First commercial microprocessors (USA)
1971 First Mars Landing (USSR)
1972 First pocket scientific calculator (USA)
1972 First UN conference on human environment (Sweden)
1972 Nixon warms world relations with China with an official visit
1973 SWIFT network for international money transfers
1973 Black-Scholes model forms basis for explosion of derivatives trading (USA)
1973 9/11 (Chile) Communist Socialistic forces are halted at the Moneda
1973 First Oil Crisis (US) -- first warning US too dependent on fossil fuels
1973 Enter the Dragon (US) - Bruce Lee demonstrates a physical unity of the East and West, absorbing the best elements from both in this masterpiece. In doing so, he became the first Asian superstar.
1973 Suspicious death of Bruce Lee (Hong Kong) - much as in the legacy of Krishnamurti, Lee's name is used and abused by many associates, perhaps his greatest legacy is the example of how anyone can become better and better to an almost superhuman extent
1975 End of Vietnam War
1975 Russia and America collaborate on Apollo-Soyuz space mission
1975 Punk movement begins promisingly with ideas of creativity a la Kabuki but rapidly degenerates into a nihilistic movement, the opposite of hippiedom, morphing into negative movements of Goths and other genres, characterized by a mindset of suicide and despair
1975 Beginning of downsizing, outsourcing, rightsizing and off shoring
Globalization drives specialization into tertiary - services, secondary - manufacturing and primary - resource extraction economies.
1977 Apple II personal computer (USA)
The PC was a culmination of size reduction and power increases from the 50s mainframes to the 70s minicomputers, placing the means of consumption and production of all media in the hands of individuals, allowing everything from animation, book production, music production, film production, architectural design, DNA sequencing to advanced simulations in the home, where previously only governments and companies held the capabilities. Combined with the Internet, it provides the resources of a Harvard or MIT in the hands of individuals.
1977 Star Wars (US) - draws on themes from Vedas to age of chivalry to Nazism, of good and evil, echoing Kali vs. Dwapara struggle, to huge commercial success
1978 Advent of GUTs – grand unified theories linking all fundamental forces
1978 First GPS Satellite (USA)
1978 Beginning of Generation Y - In West, universal access to laptops, iPods, cellphones, digital cameras and videos, blogs, instant messages and the Internet
1978 Jonestown massacre (Guyana)
1979 Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher elected (UK) - together with president Reagan frees the west
1979 Second oil crisis
1979 Three Mile Island Meltdown (USA)
1980 First commercial email – CompuServe (USA)
1980 First DNA Paternity Testing (USA)
In the adult US population married people became the minority in 2006, as societal changes make it less and less necessary for men and women to be married for economic, sexual, paternity or religious reasons. In contrast, the levels of cohabitation have shot up.
1980 Launch of CNN – cable network news (USA)
1980 Beginning of the privatization movement (UK)
1981 First cellphone service (Nordic countries)
1981 President Ronald Reagan elected (USA)
1981 Assassination attempt on President Reagan (USA)
1981 Assassination attempt on Pope John Paul II
1981 First cases of AIDS (USA)
1981 First retinal scans for identification (USA)
1983 Free software foundation – forerunner GNU, Linux etc. (USA)
1984 Assassination attempt on Prime Minister Thatcher (UK)
1984 Bhopal Disaster (India) - world's worst industrial disaster
1985 Live Aid (UK)
1985 Fall of Rajneeshpuram (USA)
1986 Chernobyl Meltdown (Ukraine) - world's worst nuclear disaster
1987 Black Monday market crash (UK)
1987 Stephen Hawking of Cambridge University organized a weeklong meeting at which scientists from around the world brought the story of gravity up to date, 300 years after Newton's publication of the Principia (UK)
1988 First Transatlantic Fiber Optic Cable (USA)
1989 US invades Panama to ensure control of the canal
1989 Close of Cold War and fall of Communist Socialism (Germany) - symbolically the Berlin Wall falls
1991 World Wide Web Server (Switzerland)
1991 End of apartheid in South Africa
1991 End of Gulf War I (USA)
1991 First Reality TV Show (Holland)
With a proliferation of media channels, there are insufficient sport-entertainment stars to fill them. Efforts begin to manufacture them.
1992 Black Wednesday Market Crash (UK) - mismanagement of exchange rates
1992 Hurricane Andrew (US) - 2nd most destructive in US history
1993 Webcrawler (USA) - first web search engine
1993 Siege of Branch Davidians in Waco (USA)
1994 Signing of NAFTA, joining Canada, USA and Mexico - first steps towards United States of Americas, following lead of United States of Europe
1994 Launch of Amazon.com (USA) - order all media, everywhere
1995 EU Directive on Data Protection
1995 First commercial 3-D printers (USA) - create physical objects from 'thin air' using electronic blueprints. These blueprints can be sent around the Internet, so say, a new or modified part in the US can be sent to an oil rig off African Coast and be printed out in 3-dimensions and used.
1995 Netscape launched (USA)
Henry Ford unilaterally introduced the five-day week for his workers, an early example of enlightened self-interest. Similarly, McDonalds, Wal-Mart and Microsoft grew hugely by focusing on the interests of consumers and the interests of regular employees, by sharing stocks and options. In the business world, fantastic success is closely associated with companies that share both risk and reward, for example, Netscape (USA) was the first dot com to really share wealth with all employees. Sports-entertainment, hedge funds, tech and I-banks largely define where upside is shared.
1995 Ebay launched (USA) - efficient sellers market, all objects, everywhere
Pierre Omidyar of Ebay and Sergey Brin of Google are the poster children of Dwapara Yuga - young immigrants becoming billionaires in the New Economy. Bill Gates, Larry Ellison and Steve Jobs, all college dropouts, similarly illustrate the unimportance of formal diplomas such as MBAs in entrepreneurship. In many ways the 1995 Dot Com bubble echoes the 1849 Gold Rush, with an opportunity for the bright and determined to make fortunes where previously only the wealthy and well connected had seats at the table. Similar booms accompanied the introduction of telegraphs, telephones, television etc -- notice the prefix tele for far, an echo of Dwapara's tag line of 'space-annihilator' -- with entrepreneurs in the beginning then consolidated, conservative business empires over time, until the launch of the next disruptive technology.
1995 First armed, unmanned flying vehicle deployed (US)
Such a vehicle had been proposed by Tesla 100 years before and DaVinci 500 years before but the technology to build it was not yet ready. Tesla was well ahead of his time. He had proposed homes pulling electricity from the air. His ideas were overridden by Edison and Westinghouse for the greater commercial value (to them) of installing power lines and associated infrastructure.
1996 ICQ Instant Messaging (Israel)
1996 First cloned mammal (UK)
1996 North Korean Communists cause a famine that kills 3.5 million in 3 years
1997 Asian market crash
1997 World Chess Champion loses to a computer program (USA)
1998 Russian financial crash
1998 International Space Station launched
1999 Euro introduced
2000 Y2K bug proves to be hype
Y2K was the impetus that allowed India to move into the international white-collar space. India has cultivated its elites fantastically but sadly less so general education, health, infrastructure and broader industry.
2000 Bill Gates follows example of previous US industrialists in using his fortune for world good (USA)
2000 Dot Com/Telco Bubbles Burst (USA) - Telco bubble ten times larger than better-known Dot Com bubble
2001 The first space tourist launches from Russia
2001 Launch of Wikipedia (USA) - surpasses both Encarta and the Encyclopedia Britannica in depth and quality
2001 Launch of iTunes (USA) - download all media, everywhere
The iPod is a Dwapara Yuga product, conceived in India, manufactured in China and marketed from the US. India has greatly benefited from the fall of the Soviet Union and its influence. Similarly, China is benefiting much more broadly from the defacto dropping of Communist Socialist ideology.
2001 9/11 (USA)
Kali Yuga elements try to roll back time to a primitive middle ages. The symbolic targets of the World Trade Center and Pentagon were hit and the White House was spared thanks to heroism of ordinary passengers on Flight 93. Ironically for such a backwards aiming organization, its name, "The Network" and propagation via the Internet and focus on symbolic media victories rather than military ones show its means to be decidedly modern. It's interesting to note the stateless nature of many of the combatants, again a modern development.
2001 Post 9/11 market crash (World)
2002 Launch of Information Awareness Office (IAO) (USA) - worldwide electronic surveillance -- Bigger Brother is watching
2002 First cases of SARS (China)
2003 China becomes the third power to have a manned space program
2003 Skype Internet telephony (Luxemburg)
2003 European heat wave kills 50,000, mainly in socialist France
2004 FDA approves implantation of RFID ID chips in humans (USA) - perhaps a 'sign of the beast' for literalists ;)
2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami - deadliest in recorded history
2005 Human Genome Decoded (International Group and USA)
2005 Hurricane Katrina (US) - most destructive in US history
2007 AppleTV (USA) - integrates television, hifi, Internet
2007 Discovery of First Earth-like planet - Gliese 581 system (Chile)
This is a mirror of Columbus' 1492 discovery of America. Chile tends to embody the strengths of both the US and Europe and the weaknesses from its exposure to both National and Communist Socialism. It is already a defacto member of NAFTA, with bilateral agreements with Canada-US-Mexico, another step to a United States of the Americas. By 2020, Chile expects to have all students be bilingual in Spanish and English.
2007 The Schengen expansion of the European Union means there will be 37 states with no borders between them. This figure is set to expand to 42 by 2012. Beginnings of world-wide recession as financial and housing markets begin to crack.